The impact on newborns’ well being from marijuana use throughout being pregnant
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Legalizing marijuana in a number of locations worldwide has warranted a decrease danger of hurt to customers. However, there’s not ample proof to grasp the impact of marijuana when utilized by pregnant ladies.   

Study: Implications and quantifications of marijuana use relating to neonatal outcomes. Image Credit: Tomsickova Tatyana/Shutterstock

In a current examine revealed in Phytomedicine Plus, researchers assessed the affect of marijuana use on neonatal outcomes.

About the examine

In the current examine, researchers assessed the implications of marijuana utilization by pregnant moms on neonatal outcomes.

The crew carried out a literature search utilizing the key phrases “marijuana,” OR “cannabis,” AND “prenatal,” OR “postnatal” OR “neonatal” AND “effect” OR “affect” within the Web of Science Core Collection database. The information included within the examine had been managed and analyzed utilizing the scientometric clustering technique. The crew then constructed a timeline of literature that was extremely co-cited between 2012 and 2022.

A evaluation of International Classification of Disease (ICD) codes was additionally carried out for cannabis- cannabinoids and neonatal results by coming into the search phrases “fetus,” “newborn,” and “cannabis” within the ICD-11 coding device for mortality and morbidity statistics (MMS). The crew additional analyzed the bioactivity of key cannabinoids, particularly cannabichromene (CBC), cannabigerol (CBG), cannabinol (CBN), and delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) current in marijuana by conducting in-silico screening.  


The examine included a complete of 4,466 reviewed publications, amongst which 857 fashioned 12 clusters of journal papers that had been extremely co-cited round an analogous matter. The 12 clusters included medical marijuana regulation, protecting behavioral methods, medical marijuana, adolescent marijuana person, mind construction, younger grownup, leisure marijuana legalization, start end result, marijuana dependence, detrimental consequence, cohort examine, and medical marijuana.

The crew discovered that the variety of pregnant ladies utilizing marijuana elevated from 2.37% in 2002 to three.85% in 2014. Approximately 48% to 60% of marijuana customers proceed their utilization even throughout being pregnant. The crew famous that the variety of maternal hospitalizations as a result of marijuana utilization elevated by 23% inside three years after implementing leisure marijuana use legal guidelines (RML) within the US.

The reviewed literature confirmed that marijuana may cross the placenta, which may result in a number of deleterious results on the toddler. It may additionally affect fetal neurodevelopment in addition to perinatal outcomes. Moreover, ladies who used marijuana throughout being pregnant had greater possibilities of creating anemia, whereas their infants had decrease start weights. Marijuana was additionally discovered to have an effect on the traditional transport and standing of the placenta all through the being pregnant. Furthermore, short-term publicity to cannabidiol (CBD) may enhance the permeability of the placental barrier towards pharmacological brokers, which may enhance fetal danger.

The crew additionally noticed that marijuana utilization throughout being pregnant led to elevated resistance index in addition to pulsatility index of the uterine artery, which may additional enhance placental resistance and cut back placental circulation. Furthermore, the focus of serum carbon monoxide is 5 instances greater in pregnant ladies utilizing marijuana as in comparison with these utilizing tobacco. This may result in impaired maternal respiratory gasoline trade, thus leading to a number of adversarial results on the fetus. 

Moreover, intrauterine publicity to marijuana can result in impaired cognitive perform in addition to elevated sensitivity to substance abuse within the toddler. Also, fetal publicity to cannabinoids also can enhance the sensitivity of the mind to the apoptotic results of ethanol. Studies additionally confirmed that youngsters uncovered to marijuana in utero had issues with visible acuity, visual-motor coordination, and visible evaluation.

At 14 weeks of gestation, the cannabinoid receptor kind 1 is discovered within the central nervous system of a human fetus, with the density of the receptor growing with the length of gestation. This indicated that endocannabinoids play an important position in human mind growth. The endocannabinoid system (ECS) includes these receptors and was therefore vital within the preliminary levels of neuronal growth. Since marijuana passes freely by means of the placenta into breast milk, it will possibly unfold to the fetus too. The position of cannabinoids within the implantation of being pregnant, placement of the placenta, in addition to the neural growth of the fetus means that marijuana is hazardous to general fetal growth.   


Overall, the examine findings confirmed a number of adversarial results of marijuana utilization by pregnant ladies on their offspring. However, the general results of marijuana on neonatal outcomes are nonetheless non-conclusive because of the involvement of assorted financial, sociologic, in addition to political elements. The researchers consider that ceasing the utilization of marijuana throughout being pregnant may cut back the chance and end result within the highest security profile for the mom and the kid.

Journal reference:

  • Yu, Z. et al. (2022) “Implications and quantifications of marijuana use regarding neonatal outcomes”, Phytomedicine Plus, 2(3), p. 100304. doi: 10.1016/j.phyplu.2022.100304.

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