Symptomatology of lengthy COVID amongst youngsters beneath 14 years of age in Denmark
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In a latest examine revealed in The Lancet Child and Adolescent Health, researchers investigated lengthy coronavirus illness (COVID) signs amongst extreme acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2)-infected Danish youngsters beneath 14 years of age.

Study: Long COVID signs in SARS-CoV-2-positive youngsters aged 0–14 years and matched controls in Denmark (LongCOVIDKidsDK): a nationwide, cross-sectional examine. Image Credit: New Africa/Shutterstock


Children are at an elevated danger of COVID 2019 (COVID-19) and post-COVID-19 (lengthy COVID) syndrome because of the lack of approved vaccines for kids, scare suggestions for pediatric vaccinations, low vaccine uptake, and social distancing difficulties amongst youngsters. Knowledge of lengthy COVID amongst youngsters is significant to information the identification and administration of COVID-19 and lengthy COVID by organising multi-disciplinary lengthy COVID clinics.

About the examine

In the current cross-sectional and nationwide LongCOVIDKidsDK examine, researchers investigated the lengthy COVID symptomatology and its affect on high quality of life and absence from colleges and daycare amenities amongst SARS-CoV-2-infected youngsters aged <14 years in Denmark.

The examine comprised a 1:4 ratio of SARS-CoV-2 contaminated Danish youngsters (instances) with diagnoses confirmed by polymerase chain response (PCR) between 1 January 2020 and 12 July 2021 (instances) and age- and sex-matched controls. The instances had been recognized from the Danish COVID-19 database, and the controls had been recognized from the Danish Civil Registration System.

Proxy experiences had been obtained by surveys crammed out by moms/fathers/authorized guardians of kids beneath 14 years of age. They included the youngsters’s somatic signs inventory-24 (CSSI-24) and pediatric high quality of life stock (PedsQL) to acquire information on little one well-being and general well being. Additionally, the survey types included ancillary questions on 23 lengthy COVID signs mostly reported within the lengthy COVID youngsters’ speedy survey carried out in January 2021.

The signs included chest ache, abdomen ache, fatigue, temper swings, headache, muscular or joint ache, focus and/or recall difficulties, urge for food loss, cough, dizziness, sore throat, rashes, fever, nausea, respiratory difficulties, palpitations, and excessive pallor. Other signs comparable to pores and skin discoloration, sensitivity to gentle, darkish circles below the eyes, and chapping of lips had been additionally included.

Quality of life was assessed for dimensions comparable to emotional, bodily, social, emotional, and college or daycare functioning over the earlier month. Only members with a recall interval of >2 months had been included within the examine. Data had been analyzed utilizing logistic regression and descriptive statistics. The variations had been thought of clinically important if the Hedges’ g scores had been >0.2.  

The PubMed database was searched on 4 January 2021 for research investigating lengthy COVID amongst youngsters, leading to one paper together with a case description of 5 youngsters in Sweden. Further, Google Scholar was searched, and one preprint examine from Italy, together with 75 lengthy COVID youngsters with out controls, was discovered.

Furthermore, the web site talked about ongoing research which reported a excessive prevalence of long-lasting signs. Still, the research had been small, didn’t embody the youngest age teams, and lacked management teams and laboratory-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 experiences. Few research reported signs to be additionally extremely prevalent amongst controls. Moreover, most research used a cutoff of 4 weeks for lengthy COVID, whereas the World Health Organization (WHO), in October 2021, outlined lengthy COVID to be lasting eight weeks.


A complete of 10997 responses (28.8%) and 33016 responses (22.4%) had been obtained for instances and controls, respectively, between 20 July 2021 and 15 September 2021. The imply age of the instances and controls was ten years and 10.6 years, respectively. Long COVID was current in 31% (n = 427) youngsters aged 0 to three years, 26.5% (n=1505) youngsters aged 4 to 11 years, and 32·5% (n = 1077) of kids aged 12 to 14 years.

The mostly reported signs within the 0 to three years age group had been rashes, temper swings, abdomen aches, urge for food loss, and cough. In the 4 to 11 years age group, focus difficulties, recall difficulties, rashes, and temper swings, had been most frequent. In the 12 to 14 years age group, temper swings, focus difficulties, recall difficulties, and fatigue had been most continuously reported. With a rise in symptom length, the variety of youngsters with the signs decreased.

The odds of >1 symptom lasting for >2 months had been higher amongst instances than controls for kids beneath three years of age [odds ratio (OR) 1.8], for these aged between 4 and 11 years (OR 1.2) and for these aged between 12 and 14 years (OR 1.2). Significant variations had been famous within the CSSI-24 scores between the case group youngsters and the controls; nevertheless, the variations weren’t related clinically.

Contrastingly, variations with medical relevance had been famous within the PedsQL scores for the emotional dimension amongst instances and controls for kids 4 to 11 years of age (scores had been 80 and 75 for instances and controls, respectively) and for kids aged 12 to 14 years (scores had been 90 and 85 for instances and controls, respectively). Likewise, PedsQL scores for the social dimension had been higher for instances (median scores had been 100 and 95 for instances and controls, respectively) for kids aged 12 to 14 years.

Among youngsters aged 13 months to a few years, the variety of youngsters reported having ≥16 days of sick go away amongst instances (28.4%) was increased amongst instances in comparison with controls (18.4%). The corresponding proportions of kids reporting ≥16 days of absence from college or daycare had been additionally increased amongst instances (23.9%) in comparison with controls (14.1%).

Similar outcomes had been noticed for kids aged 4 to 11 years (instances vs. controls 7.0% vs. 3.8% for ≥16 days sick go away; and 6.1% vs. 3.3% for ≥16 days of faculty or daycare absence). The corresponding proportions for the 12 to 14 years age group had been 9.0% vs 5.2%; and 6.5% vs 5.0%, respectively. The findings indicated that throughout all ages, instances reported extra sick go away and a higher variety of absent days for colleges or daycare amenities within the earlier 12 months in comparison with controls.


Overall, the examine findings confirmed that long-term signs had been extra prevalent amongst SARS-CoV-2-positive youngsters in comparison with controls aged beneath 14 years, with higher quality-of-life scores in relation to social and emotional functioning amongst instances of older age (4 to 11 years and 12 to 14 years). However, the medical variations on a inhabitants degree gave the impression to be small.

Journal reference:

  • Long COVID signs in SARS-CoV-2-positive youngsters aged 0–14 years and matched controls in Denmark (LongCOVIDKidsDK): a nationwide, cross-sectional examine. Selina Kikkenborg Berg, et al. Lancet Child Adolesc Health. doi:


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