Scientists discover SARS-CoV-2 spike protein and platelet-activating issue
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In a current examine revealed within the IUBMB journal, researchers assessed the affiliation between platelet-activating issue (PAF) and extreme acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) spike (S) protein.

Study: Is there an interaction between the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein and Platelet-Activating issue? Image Credit: PHOTOCREO Michal Bednarek/Shutterstock

Platelets play an important position in thrombosis and homeostasis and their aggregation has been broadly reported amongst coronavirus illness 2019 (COVID-19) sufferers as a response to collagen, thrombin, and adenosine diphosphate (ADP). Furthermore, numerous research have reported stimulation of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), platelet issue 4 (PF4), interleukin 1β (IL-1β), and IL-8 from platelets by the SARS-CoV-2 S protein.

About the examine

In the current examine, researchers evaluated the impact of the COVID-19 messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) vaccine on the human platelet-rich plasma (hPRP) aggregation response and whether or not a recombinant SSARS-CoV-2 S protein may modulate hPRP aggregation induced by PAF.

The crew collected bovine serum albumin fraction V (FV-BSA), ADP, PAF, collagen, and thrombin receptor activating peptide (TRAP) together with a recombinant HEK293-derived SARS-CoV-2 S receptor-binding area (RBD) protein. The researchers obtained blood samples after in a single day fasting from a complete of six wholesome girls previous to vaccination, and three weeks and 5 months after COVID-19 mRNA vaccination. The examine evaluation was carried out after the volunteers reported the receipt of the second vaccine dose to evaluate the affect of full activation of the human immune system.

The crew additionally collected blood samples as an anticoagulant in trisodium citrate and platelet-rich plasma (PRP) through centrifugation. The pellet ensuing from centrifugation was additional recentrifuged to amass platelet-poor plasma (PPP). The aggregation elicited by totally different concentrations of ADP, PAF, TRAP, and collagen was assessed in human PRP utilizing mild transmission aggregometry. The ensuing aggregation curve was employed to calculate the focus required of a selected agonist to stimulate 50% of platelet aggregation (EC50).

The affect of the SARS-CoV-2 S protein on platelet aggregation induced by agonists was assessed by preincubating the platelets within the presence of the viral S protein, whereas totally different quantities of platelet agonists have been added. In a number of the assessments, the S protein was added when the agonist-induced aggregation occurred or earlier than the secondary wave of platelet aggregation induced by the agonists.         

The crew additionally obtained blood samples from the primary artery within the ears of white male California-type rabbits earlier than isolating the platelets within the samples. Furthermore. PAF was decided by subjecting the extracellular PAF and intracellular PAF extracts to high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) separation. The PAF concentrations have been estimated by assessing the aggregatory exercise towards washed rabbit platelets (WRP).

Results

The examine outcomes confirmed that the affect of COVID-19 vaccination on the aggregation of hPRP relied on the agonist. The crew famous that the EC50 PAF ranges have been lowered by 83% three weeks put up COVID-19 vaccination, the EC50 ADP ranges declined by 29%, and EC50 collagen ranges lowered by 20%. Furthermore, the EC50 concentrations of all of the agonists examined reverted to their preliminary ranges after 5 months. Notably, aggregation of hPRP which was induced by TRAP was not affected by COVID-19 vaccination.

The crew additionally noticed that incubation of the platelets from unvaccinated people for 10 minutes with the viral S protein didn’t stimulate hPRP aggregation. Preincubation of hPRP for one minute with the S protein revealed a dose-dependent discount of aggregation ranging between 50% and 90%. When the S protein was added shortly earlier than the secondary wave of the PAF-induced aggregation, full elimination of the secondary section occurred. On the opposite hand, when the S protein was added 10 seconds after totally different aggregations have been induced by PAF, there was a dose-dependent discount of aggregation that ranged between 39% and 65%. Moreover, preincubation of hPRP with the S protein for 10 minutes didn’t affect the biphasic aggregation induced by PAF.

Furthermore, aggregation induced by ADP was not influenced by the S protein whereas a 15% enhance was famous when hPRP was reincubated with the S protein for one minute. The crew additionally noticed a slight decline of 13% in TRAP-induced aggregation when hPRP was preincubated with S protein for one minute and when S was added 10 seconds after TRAP.

Additionally, the crew discovered that incubation of platelets obtained from non-vaccinated people with the viral S protein for 10 minutes didn’t elicit hPRP aggregation. Moreover, PFAF-induced biphasic aggregation was not impacted by the preincubation of hPRP with the S protein for one minute. However, a 29% and 64% enhance in aggregation was noticed when the S protein was added 10 seconds after PFAF and earlier than the start of the second wave of aggregation, respectively.

Overall, the examine findings confirmed that COVID-19 vaccination resulted in a short-term enhance in platelet sensitivity, primarily when PAF was employed as an agonist.      

Journal reference:

  • Antonopoulou, S, Petsini, F, Detopoulou, M, Theoharides, TC, Demopoulos, CA. (2022). Is there an interaction between the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein and Platelet-Activating issue? BioFactorsdoi: https://doi.org/10.1002/biof.1877 https://iubmb.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/biof.1877

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