Pregnant ladies’s social contacts and COVID vaccination protection in 19 European international locations
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In a current research posted to the medRxiv* pre-print server, researchers from the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine and Hasselt University surveyed the social contact patterns and coronavirus illness 2019 (COVID-19) vaccine uptake amongst ladies from 19 European international locations pregnant between March 2020 and September 2021.

Study: Pregnancy throughout COVID-19: social contact patterns and vaccine protection of pregnant ladies from CoMix in 19 European international locations. Image Credit: Nicoleta Ionescu / Shutterstock


It is vital for pregnant ladies to obtain extra psychosocial assist to deal with their feelings and stress throughout this important childbearing section. However, because of lowered social contact through the extreme acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2)-induced pandemic in 2020, pregnant ladies needed to face further challenges additional worsened by the apprehension of contracting COVID-19.

About the research

In the current research, researchers used knowledge from a web-based social contact survey, CoMix, which recruited and adopted up with nationally consultant samples from 19 European international locations. It gathered info relating to the attention, social contacts, and well being situations of the grownup inhabitants over the course of the COVID-19 pandemic. In addition, they requested the research individuals about their danger notion and COVID-19 vaccination standing.

The crew analyzed knowledge from pregnant ladies between 18 to 49 years and age-matched non-pregnant men and women who participated within the CoMix research. They included all of the research individuals for seven to 10 survey rounds earlier than exclusion.

The researchers used a clustered bootstrap to compute the imply proportion of people in quarantine and vaccination protection by gender and being pregnant standing. They used a generalized additive blended mannequin (GAMM) to calculate the imply adjusted contacts reported in numerous settings, together with dwelling, work, and different social settings. The researchers modeled the reported social contacts utilizing a log hyperlink operate primarily based on the idea that they adopted a damaging binomial distribution.

The crew retrieved the non-pharmaceutical interventions (NPIs) knowledge measured by an total stringency index (SI) carried out through the OxCGRT mission. SI gives a scientific option to quantify the strictness of lockdown insurance policies that restricted social behaviors, with values starting from zero (least stringent restriction) to 100.

Number of surveys accomplished by pregnant ladies over time by nation between 23 March 2020 and 12 September 2021 Not all international locations are labelled. The dashed line represents 1st January 2021.

Study findings

The authors made 4,129 observations from 1,041 pregnant ladies and located that they made fewer contacts than non-pregnant ladies. Accordingly, round 15 to twenty% of pregnant ladies remained in quarantine throughout many of the research interval. Contrastingly, lower than 20% of non-pregnant men and women reported being in isolation earlier than May 2020 and solely 5% since May 2020. Around 45-50% of pregnant ladies thought of COVID-19 a critical risk all through the research interval, whereas ~ 25% of non-pregnant folks did so since August 2020. Clearly, the danger notion was increased amongst pregnant ladies; nonetheless, in comparison with males, non-pregnant ladies have been extra apprehensive that they could unfold the illness.

Proportion of individuals who report being in isolation or quarantine because of COVID-19 with 95% bootstrap-based confidence interval.

The authors noticed a pointy enhance in face-mask use, i.e., ~70% amongst all teams in August 2020. The utilization remained constant in all of the teams till it declined to 60% in July 2021. Throughout the research, pregnant ladies had a barely decrease imply variety of each day contact than non-pregnant ladies of the identical age (3.6 vs. 4). However, they made extra social contacts outdoors the households than non-pregnant ladies (0.7 vs. 0.5-0.6). The social contacts additionally assorted with the strictness of the NPIs and settings. Pregnant ladies usually made the least contacts outdoors the house setting in any respect ranges of NPIs. Conversely, they reported extra contacts than non-pregnant folks in any respect ranges of restrictions, as indicated by SI values.

Between January and April 2021, COVID-19 vaccine protection was increased in pregnant ladies than in non-pregnant ladies. Different European international locations had completely different insurance policies relating to COVID-19 vaccines primarily based on being pregnant standing, and its uptake was low amongst pregnant ladies even the place the vaccine was out there. Moreover, research have continuously raised issues concerning the security and unwanted effects of COVID-19 vaccines on the fetus. By May 2021, vaccination in non-pregnant ladies surpassed pregnant ladies.

As knowledge concerning the security and effectiveness of COVID-19 vaccines in being pregnant turns into out there, the authors strongly beneficial vaccinating pregnant ladies as a precedence. Simultaneously, policymakers ought to devise methods to handle vaccine hesitancy amongst pregnant ladies, together with post-vaccination surveillance and mom and toddler follow-up.


There is a heightened want for social contact or in-person assist through the being pregnant. The NPIs carried out through the COVID-19 pandemic reshaped social conduct that adversely affected pregnant ladies. Moreover, there was an atmosphere of fixed confusion that hindered them from receiving COVID-19 vaccination. Overall, the research knowledge highlighted the pressing must acknowledge and supply exact and clear info that would reassure pregnant ladies through the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic.

*Important discover

medRxiv publishes preliminary scientific stories that aren’t peer-reviewed and, subsequently, shouldn’t be considered conclusive, information scientific apply/health-related conduct, or handled as established info.

Journal reference:

  • Pregnancy throughout COVID-19: social contact patterns and vaccine protection of pregnant ladies from CoMix in 19 European international locations, Kerry LM Wong, Amy Gimma, Enny S Paixao, CoMix Europe Working Group, Christel Faes, Philippe Neutels, Niel Hens, Christopher I Jarvis, W. John Edmunds, medRxiv pre-print 2022, DOI:, material/10.1101/2022.06.01.22275775v1

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